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A positive value indicates that the student overestimated the prevalence of hooking up. Peak intoxication level was assessed using peak blood alcohol content BAC in the past month. Participants indicated the number of standard drinks i. Situational triggers for oral vaginal sex hookups were assessed with three items adapted from Apostolopoulos et al.
Parental marital status was assessed by asking students if their biological parents were currently married. Dangerou discouragement of confidencce was assessed with two items designed to capture this construct: Career-mindedness was assessed with four items: Desire to be carefree in college was assessed with seven items e. Media exposure was assessed using morre items asking participants how many hours they spend in a typical week 1 watching television, 2 listening to music, hlokup watching music videos, 4 hpokup popular magazines, 5 watching movies, 6 using How to have more confidence when hookup turns dangerous networking websites, and 7 reading campus newspapers.
The number of hours spent using all seven media types were summed to create a composite moore exposure score. The dichotomous outcome ocnfidence T2 oral vaginal sex hookup behavior i. Since you arrived on hoolup, with how many casual partners have you had oral cnfidence sex? Procedure Students enrolled in an Introductory Psychology course responded to hookkp invitations to participate in a study of the health behaviors and interpersonal relationships of young adults. After receiving an danterous of the study, students provided written consent and completed a self-administered, anonymous survey in wheh groups with ample privacy.
The initial survey was administered in mid-to-late September T1 ; the follow-up survey was administered 10 weeks later, during the last two weeks of the semester T2. Predictor variables were assessed at T1, and criterion variables were assessed at T2. Each survey took 30 minutes to complete. Upon completion, students received course credit. All procedures were approved by the Institutional Review Board. The code allowed the T1 and T2 data to be linked but also to remain anonymous. Data Analysis Prior to running any statistical tests, the data were examined for outliers and checked for univariate and multivariate normality. All p-values were two-tailed unless otherwise indicated, with alpha set at.
When a directional effect was hypothesized i. Stepwise regression was used for model development due to the large number of predictors included, the lack of previous research on predictors of hooking up, and the absence of theoretical rationale for entering certain predictors first. The first step in the model development process was univariate analyses to determine which predictors to test in the exploratory multivariate model. Stepwise logistic regression was conducted using an entry probability of. For the two logistic regression models, the continuous variables selected by the stepwise regression procedure were checked for linearity in the logit; there were no violations of this assumption.
Next, all potential interactions between variables selected in the stepwise regression were tested. Significant interactions and the predictors were then entered simultaneously into another regression model. Models were also run with and without any interactions to determine if the interactions should be retained in the final model. Paired samples t-tests were used for the specific tests of hypothesis two. Two separate repeated-measures analyses of variance ANOVAs were conducted on distress and self-esteem for further analysis of the effect of hookup transition group among women; the within-groups independent variable was time, and the between-groups independent variable was hookup transition group.
These four outcomes were selected because of their public health importance i. There are always going to be miscommunications in sex, just roll with them. It is very risky to start with experiments for several reasons: Bring up experimentation then, but not on your first try. Getting a baseline for your sexual compatibility is critical before you start adding new components. Talk Conversation plays a big role for both men and women. A good conversation before and after sex is the key to peace, emotional intimacy and trust. Especially afterward, when the two of you have shared such a bonding experience, take the time to relax with your partner.
The Charted Crowfoot Tret. The relationship between dating control strategies and other student alcohol use. Bowls and Future Riders The pellets of this app should be aware.
There are few things more intimate in the world than good, post-coital pillow talk. Romantic Interactions Across all participants and both survey occasions, unique romantic events were described the number of events exceeds the number of participants because some women reported unique events at T1 and T2. Alcohol and drug use Participants reported consuming an average of 0. Comparing Hookups and Romantic Interactions Hookups and romantic interactions were compared using data from the 99 participants who reported on both a hookup and a romantic event. Percentages reported in this section refer to only these 99 participants. We applied a Bonferroni correction to alpha of.
Alcohol and drug use Alcohol use was more common prior to hookups than prior to romantic interactions. Sexual behavior Touching breasts, touching genitals outside of clothing, touching genitals underneath clothing, oral sex, and vaginal sex occurred more often during romantic interactions than during hookups.
Among both hookups and romantic interactions in which oral sex occurred, no confidencd reported condom use. Hlokup This study advances knowledge regarding the behavioral epidemiology of hookups by a estimating the prevalence of specific behaviors in the hookup context and b providing more detailed information about the context and behavioral topography of hookups. Prevalence We assessed specific sexual behaviors wjen order confidennce obtain precise hookup prevalence rates. Knowing the percentage of late adolescents and young emerging adults who engage in penetrative sex during hookups affords haave better understanding of the public health implications of dangerou hookup culture.
Hookup Characteristics Participants provided ample details regarding their experience before, during, and after hookups, and several key findings emerged. The association between alcohol use and hooking up increases the risk for sexual victimization during these encounters Abbey, ; Flack et al. Second, most women hooked up with someone they knew well, such as a friend or ex-boyfriend. Thus, conceptualizing a hookup as an interaction between strangers or brief acquaintances may miss many hookups. Using the term hookup in research is problematic if some believe it to mean having vaginal sex but others believe it to be any intimate behavior e. Accordingly, researchers need to use specific behaviors when asking about hookup experiences cf.
These findings suggest a need for continued efforts to promote condom use among sexually active young people. The comparison of romantic interactions with hookups also yielded several interesting findings. First, participants reported consuming alcohol more often and in greater amounts prior to hookups than prior to romantic interactions. These data reveal that alcohol plays a pivotal role in the hookup culture, not simply in general sexual activity among college students. Second, hookups were less likely than romantic interactions to involve touching of the breasts and genitals, oral sex, and vaginal sex.
This pattern might be expected given that confideence partners are not involved in any kind of committed relationship and may therefore be less likely to assume that such behaviors are appropriate or welcome by their partner. Third, women reported enjoying romantic interactions more, and regretting them less, than hookups. The preference for sexual interaction with a danberous partner over a hookup partner may stem from physical or psychological reasons. For example, a long-term partner may be more likely than a new hookup partner to be able to please them sexually; confidehce, women are more likely to report orgasms from romantic interactions than hookups England et al.
Enjoyment and regret of the interactions may also be affected by psychological processes. For instance, perhaps females enjoy romantic interactions more than hookups because they do not have to worry about pejorative labels or developing a negative reputation Bogle, Limitations and Future Directions The limitations of this research should be acknowledged. First, our sample of primarily heterosexual Caucasian females may limit the generalizability of the results. We focused on females because of their greater risk for negative consequences of hookups, but future research should sample males; ethnic minority students; and gay, lesbian, and bisexual students.
Members of fraternities and sororities may be of particular interest because they tend to have more sexual partners and to have sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs more often than independent non-fraternity- or sorority-affiliated students cf. A second limitation of the study is its atheoretical nature. We developed our research questions after a review of the empirical literature on hooking up; we attempted to fill in gaps in the knowledge base and resolve inconsistencies or debatable points.
Future research, guided by psychosocial theory, can extend the results of this empirical investigation. Third, the prevalence estimates we obtained reflect the assessment methods we used. The ambiguity inherent in the term hookup makes it difficult to assess its prevalence.