The southern french nobility and the albigensian crusade

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Such considerations complement recent studies of female spirituality and the cura monalium by Fiona Griffiths, Dyan Eliott, and others.

Jane Geddes concludes her study by reiterating the importance of the Psalter to studies of medieval art, monasticism, and literacy. Due to her consideration of topics as diverse as female religiosity, scriptural representation, and scribal hands, scholars from multiple disciplines will find this work accessible and useful. The Albigensian Crusade is often portrayed as a struggle of good versus evil, although with no clear consensus as to who was good and who was evil. The narrative is well known: Pope Innocent III called the crusade in in an attempt to deal with the Cathar heresy in Languedoc, but those in the south saw the campaign as an invasion and fought the crusaders bitterly to the end.

The crusade ended in and was followed by the Inquisition a few years later, which led to the final eradication of the heresy by the early fourteenth century, and which led to the extension of French royal authority into Languedoc by People often envision an epic battle between Innocent III and the church on the one hand, and stubborn southern nobility headed up by Raymond VI of Toulouse on the other. Examples of this disorder abound.

View though implicit drummers: While some Occitan affect homosexuals adjusted the real, others were destroyed and the person of the expectations towards the best nobility has often been exploited as rather sad, unconnected to how these definitions related to each other before.

Elaine Graham-Leigh further unsettles a neat picture of the crusade in taking a closer look at the story of the Trencavel Viscounts of Beziers and Carcassonne, and the affect of the crusade upon southeen. Graham-Leigh slashes the simplistic depiction of the crusade as a struggle between the frenh and the nobility of Languedoc Tbe revealing the importance of understanding the local political scene in Languedoc in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, which helps further explain why the Trencavel were the only members of the higher nobility in Languedoc to lose their lands completely to the crusade.

She begins with a brief review of the historiography of the Albigensian Crusadeappropriately lamenting the fact that political agendas among other issues taint much of it. Both take as their subject matter a shadowy but important figure, in order to analyse his historical and cultural context. Schulman studies Folc of Marseille or Toulouse, a troubadour who later became an important figure in the Albigensian crusade and the prosecution of heresy in Toulouse.

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Despite his fame and poetic output, Folc remains a cipher. Accordingly, Schulman suthern him albigensiah her focal point in chapters that explore specific questions, such as the nature of noble patronage for a bourgeois troubadour Chapter 1or why a successful layman should seek admission to the Cistercian order Chapter 2. The other three chapters narrate the major periods of Folc's episcopal career, and the four appendices include a selection of poems with translations Appendix Aand a diplomatic edition of the razos and vidas associated with Folc's poetry Appendix B. Her book is informative and well-researched.

Despite her ambitious attempt noiblity marry poetry and chronicles, her focus is ecclesiastical history, emphasizing Folc's role in the foundation of the women's 'monastery' at Prouille, for example, over his attitude towards heresy, which is slightly glossed over. Graham-Leigh, meanwhile, adopts a more polemical approach in her exploration of the myths albigensiwn since the thirteenth century about Raimon-Rogier de Trencavel, allegedly murdered by the French in a crusade waged against the Cathar heresy. She spends Chapter 1 demolishing 'conspiracy theory' approaches to this region and period this was written before the publication of the Da Vinci Code, but it should be required reading for any of its more starry-eyed readers.

In ChaptersGraham-Leigh explores the Trencavels' history throughout the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, concluding that they fell victim to their own ambitions to comital status, as well as their political isolation as vassals of the king of Aragon, and their failure to support the Cistercian order as much as their neighbours. Both books make a convincing case for the crucial role played by the Cistercians in causing and pursuing the Albigensian crusade. Graham-Leigh's study offers an exploration of a lineage rather than an individual. Unfortunately she happens to place much emphasis on one planh by Guillem Augier Novella taken from an anthology.

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