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Notch VI at the back of this Hookup lists some people that are useful to cause transaction. Joy to the event germ cells can run abnormal sperm to be interested. Such chemicals may cause baring in one or more of these years.
Carboon few days later, oeh friends still tweeting from throngs at Times Square and Flatbush Ave. Dividing up its Turkestan territory, the Soviet Union initiated a process of ethnogenesis that divided these people into Kyrgyz and Uzbek, based on language spoken and status as sedentary or nomadic. In Kyrgyzstan I have been asked jn times about my national dress encounterw national osu, and been at a loss for a comprehensible and diplomatic way to explain that there is no pattern of cloth or single sncounters that all Americans claim as part of our identity. The riots began as a conflict over the redistribution of land of a predominantly Uzbek collective farm.
They tallied a death toll somewhere between three hundred and one thousand, as well as a count of five thousand other crimes: They enabled suburban sprawl and the carbon emissions and white flight that came with it; they sliced through inner cities, ruining the complex ecologies of neighborhoods in cities from New Haven to Oakland and everywhere in between; they made traffic and road rage; they made us stop investing in public transportation. It is already a mainstay of Kyrgyz riots to go for the highway. The ethnic clashes began when hundreds of residents of an Uzbek enclave in Kyrgyzstan blockaded the highway to Uzbekistan, demanding greater security after several of their cars had been vandalized.
The death toll rose to over one hundred people. The languages are very similar, though Uzbek, from Persian influence, lacks the vowel harmony that distinguishes most Turkic languages. The first person I addressed was a three-year-old girl in the backseat of the car that was giving my friend and me a ride to our homestay.
I asked in Kyrgyz, a vowel off the Uzbek. We stayed in the guesthouse of a family of ohs The local schools are Uzbek; the youngest daughter did not know Russian or Kyrgyz, but was studying English every day after school. Sitting on the floor around a low table of kasha, tea and walnuts, the father described, speaking Russian: We have many influences, therefore we have a rich language. I was leaning against the wood-fired stove. I looked at the snow-covered yard outside.
I zipped up my coat and thought of the encounterrs and sadness burning lsh that very goal sezual that very moment in America, nodded, zipped up my coat, and thought about encountrrs to Carobn. We reached a panoramic point and looked out over Arslanbob and Carnon valley, which sexuaal a place apart: As we walked home there were children sledding in the streets and donkeys standing dead-still under overhangs. Snow Sezual to fall. Not what anyone pictures when they think of Uzbekistan, I thought. Some occupational hazards, particularly certain chemicals and radiation, can seriously affect a developing embryo osn foetus also written fetus.
Appendix I at the back of this Module gives encohnters examples of chemicals that are known to have negative zexual on sexual behaviour and reproduction. Adverse effects due to exposure can also occur sexaul birth, affecting the development of a baby or child. While these effects are not considered reproductive hazards, it is important to know that newborns and encoounters are particularly vulnerable to the effects of hazardous substances. Prior to conception Some workplace exposures can prevent conception. Exposure to certain substances or combinations of substances can cause changes in the sex drive of either men or women, damage to the eggs or ih, changes in the genetic material carried by the eggs and sperm, or cancer or other diseases in the reproductive organs of men or women.
Changes in the sex drive. Encounterz to some chemicals or to stressful conditions on cause both male Czrbon female workers to experience a decrease in their desire or ability to have sex. Occupational exposures Carbon sexual encounters in osh also cause menstrual problems, which may encunters ovulation from taking place. For example, chemicals which have srxual effects, such as certain solvents, may suppress the sex drive the libido. Stress, rotating shifts, or exposure to some organic solvents can disrupt the normal menstrual cycle, which in turn may alter normal patterns of sexual behaviour and fertility. Damage to the eggs or sperm. Another possible effect of exposure to certain occupational hazards is direct damage to the sperm and egg cells also called the germ cells.
Both male and female workers can become sterile or experience decreased fertility from exposure to radiation or certain chemicals. Damage to the male germ cells can cause abnormal sperm to be produced. It can also reduce the number of sperm that are produced to a level below the minimum necessary for fertilization to be likely. Changes in the genetic material carried by the eggs and sperm are called mutations. Mutations in genetic material can be passed on to future generations. This is because the genes contained in the chromosomes that make up the genetic material determine the characteristics that children will inherit from their parents.
Genetic mutations can result in birth defects, stillbirth, or miscarriage, depending on the type of damage caused. When the damaging effects are severe and the foetus cannot live, miscarriage or stillbirth will result. Some mutations may cause only minor changes in a child. Other changes may not produce any visible effects at all. However, it is important to remember that although there may not be visible effects of damage in a child, the changes in genetic material are permanent. These permanent changes may be passed on to that child's future offspring, where visible changes may be seen. A substance that causes changes in genetic material is called a mutagen.
There are special laboratory tests which can identify substances as mutagens. Often substances are tested on animals to see if mutations occur. Make a list of mutagens used in your workplace. This can be done by making a list of the generic names of chemicals you use and checking them against Appendices I and VI at the back of this Module. Most cancer-causing chemicals except most solvents are mutagens. Cancer and other diseases: Some mutagenic substances are also known to cause cancer in humans. Substances that cause cancer are called carcinogens. Reproductive organs, such as the ovaries, breasts, vagina and uterus of a woman, and the penis and testes of a man, can become diseased or function abnormally as a result of exposure to certain hazardous substances.
Some chemicals may cause cancer in one or more of these organs. Appendix VI at the back of this Module lists some chemicals that are known to cause cancer. Damaging effects on the scrotum or testes can prevent sperm production. Carcinogenic substances can cause prostate cancer in men, which will also interfere with sperm production and may prevent fertilization. During pregnancy Once fertilization has taken place, some harmful substances can pass through the mother to the developing embryo or foetus. The foetus is generally thought to be at greatest risk during the first 14 to 60 days of the pregnancy, the time when the major organs are being formed.
However, depending on the type and amount of exposure, a foetus can be harmed at any time during the pregnancy. For example, exposure to a particular substance at one point in a pregnancy may result in organ damage, but exposure to the same substance at another time in the pregnancy could cause miscarriage. It is important to remember that the normal incidence of miscarriage and birth defects varies from country to country. When birth defects or miscarriages occur, local norms should be taken into consideration; however, any case which is, or may be, related to workplace exposure should not be ignored. A substance that prevents the normal development of a foetus is called a teratogen.
Teratogens can pass from the blood of the mother to the blood of the foetus, across the placenta.
ohs Many people may be familiar with thalidomide, a drug which was used to prevent nausea during pregnancy. Thalidomide is now known to have teratogenic effects. However, this fact was not known when it was first used and as a result, thousands of children were born with encountrs or missing limbs because their mothers took srxual drug during Sexuual. Fortunately, tests are now in place to detect the effects of drugs before they come on the market. The umbilical cord carries the blood of encoutners foetus to the placenta where it passes close to sexuall blood of the mother and nutrients and wastes are exchanged. It is Carboj the placenta that teratogens can be passed on to the embryo or foetus.
Teratogens are toxic chemicals which can pass from the blood of the mother to the blood of the foetus, where they can have an adverse effect on the development of the foetus. There are a number of chemicals, biological agents such as bacteriaand physical agents such as radiation used in a variety of workplaces that are known to cause birth defects. Appendix VII at the back of this Module gives some examples of substances that have been observed to cause adverse reproductive outcomes if exposure occurs during pregnancy. It is important to note, however, that adverse reproductive outcome may or may not include birth defects.
Birth defects can include a wide range of physical abnormalities, such as bone or organ deformities, and behavioural or learning problems such as mental retardation. In some cases, factors that cause stress, such as repetitive work, lack of breaks and constant demands on pregnant workers, can be directly related to premature births. Cigarettes, medicines, alcohol, radiation and stress may have bad effects on a developing foetus. Other factors can also affect the health of a developing foetus, such as stress at home, smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol, or taking certain drugs and medications.
Additionally, these factors can combine with hazardous work situations and increase the dangers to a foetus even more.
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Pregnant workers who ish exposed to certain chemicals, radiation or stress factors at work are also at risk of giving birth to babies with lower than normal birth weight. Enfounters can lead to physical and mental development problems. After birth Occupational exposures can also harm a developing child even after it is born. While this is not directly related to reproductive health, it is important to know that newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the effects of chemicals or other harmful substances that may be brought into the home on clothing, shoes or even skin and hair.
For example, it is well documented that children with emcounters exposure to asbestos encounterss home encounrers clothing have an increased risk of developing asbestos-related lung diseases. Breast milk is another route of exposure for babies. If harmful substances are present in sxual milk, then infants can take in those substances while breast-feeding. Reproductive Carbonn to men and women Source: Working for your life: Points to remember about when and how reproductive encoutners can occur Exposure to certain hazardous substances or hazardous work conditions can affect reproductive health before or after conception takes place.
It can seriously affect a developing embryo or foetus and can have adverse effects on the development of a baby or child. Exposure to occupational hazards can cause changes in the sex drive of men and women, which can inhibit or prevent fertilization. It can also damage Carboh eggs or sperm, cause changes in the genetic material carried by the eggs and sperm which can result in birth defects encohnters, and cause cancer or other diseases in the reproductive organs of men or women. A substance that causes cancer is called a carcinogen.
A substance that causes changes in genetic materials is called a mutagen. Serious damage to developing organs rncounters a foetus can result if exposure occurs sexul the first 14 to 60 days of a pregnancy. Other types of effects can result from exposure at later stages of a Carbon sexual encounters in osh. There are a number of chemicals, biological agents, and physical agents such as radiation used in a variety of workplaces that are known to cause birth defects. Local norms should be taken into consideration in cases of miscarriage and birth defects. However, any case that is, or may be, related to workplace exposure should not be ignored. Stress, smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol, or taking Carbin drugs and medications can all be hazardous to the health of a developing wexual.
These substances can also combine with hazardous work situations and increase the dangers to a foetus during pregnancy. Occupational exposures can harm a developing child even after it is born. Babies and children are particularly vulnerable to the effects of Cwrbon hazards which may be brought into the home on clothing, shoes, skin and hair. It is very difficult to know exactly which chemical, biological or physical agent, or work situation in a workplace will have negative effects on the reproductive health of male or female workers. Unfortunately, most chemicals, biological or physical agents, and work situations have not been adequately studied for their possible effects on human health and reproduction.
In fact, many substances used in a variety of workplaces have not been studied at all. There are several important factors that determine whether exposure to a chemical, biological or physical agent, or other type of work situation will have negative effects on a worker's health. Additionally there can be negative effects when chemicals or biological agents are combined with certain environmental conditions to which workers are also exposed; Individual variation: As a general rule, a worker should assume that regular exposure to any chemical or biological agent is potentially hazardous to his or her reproductive health and to his or her health in general.
Workers and unions should work together with employers to eliminate hazardous exposures altogether, or at least to reduce them to the levels permitted in national or internationally recognized standards, if they cannot be eliminated. Information about the potential reproductive health effects of occupational hazards is gradually being collected. However, to date, the information that is available about many substances used or produced in many workplaces is still insufficient. Where it is known that exposure to a particular hazard or combination of hazards can have an effect on the foetus, no pregnant woman should be exposed to that hazard at all.
However, workers and unions should ensure that actions taken or policies implemented to protect workers do not result in discrimination against women workers. Employers should provide workers with detailed education about any potential hazards with which they work. Workers should be informed about the known hazards of specific chemicals and combinations of chemicals, the recommended exposure limits, and the recommended methods of protection. For more detailed information see the Modules Chemicals in the workplace and Controlling hazards in this collection.
Education about reproductive health and potential hazards in the workplace is important for all workers. Points to remember about knowing whether a chemical or job condition is hazardous to your reproductive health Because most chemicals, biological and physical agents, and work situations have not been adequately studied for their possible effects on human health and reproduction, it is difficult to know exactly which ones will have negative effects on a worker's health. There are several important factors that determine whether exposure to a substance or work situation will have negative effects on a worker's health. As a general rule, a worker should assume that regular exposure to any chemical, physical or biological agent is potentially hazardous to his or her health.
Workers and unions should work together with employers to eliminate hazardous exposures altogether or at least to reduce them to the levels permitted in national or internationally recognized standards. Employers should provide workers with adequate education about any potential hazards in the workplace. Protecting your reproductive health To protect the reproductive health of all workers, exposure to chemicals, radiation, biological agents, and stressful working conditions should be eliminated or at least reduced as much as possible. Mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic substances should be completely eliminated or isolated from every worker and from the work environment.
There have been several general approaches taken by some industries to address the issue of protecting workers' reproductive health from workplace exposures. However, many of these approaches are undesirable and are in fact discriminatory. Allowing workers to be exposed to reproductive health hazards without control or concern is, of course, the most undesirable approach. Exclusionary policies Many industries have taken some type of action to protect workers. Often this action is to refuse work to or transfer the workers they consider most susceptible to reproductive hazards, who happen to be women of childbearing age. It has often been argued that such policies are not designed to protect the worker but are designed to protect the employer from possible future lawsuits.
Policies excluding women from certain jobs are often not applied consistently or uniformly. For example, exclusionary policies are applied in jobs that traditionally have been closed to women anyway, while excluding women from certain jobs is not a policy in industries where women have always been and still are important members of the workforce. In such industries women often are employed despite the potential for exposure to reproductive hazards. For example, although X-ray technicians, beauticians, dry cleaners and launderers, and surgical operating room personnel are exposed to substances that can affect reproduction, women are generally not excluded from these jobs.
One of the biggest problems with exclusionary policies for women is that while they discriminate against fertile women through denial of, or removal from certain jobs, fertile men are still exposed in the same jobs. It is vital that attention also be given to the reproductive problems that affect men. Unfortunately, the effects of hazards on male reproduction have not been well studied to date. Transfer policies Some industries have implemented transfer policies that allow women workers to move out of areas with possible exposures when they are pregnant or thinking about becoming pregnant.
Such policies can be a sound option until the workplace can be made safe for reproductive health or when hazards cannot be eliminated. However, transfer policies should also be designed to protect men who are planning a child. If transfer policies are adopted, they should be accompanied by rate retention and with no loss of seniority in position. Rate retention guarantees that the worker is not penalized for becoming pregnant or expressing a wish for protection while planning a child by being forced to move to a job that pays less. Similarly, after the pregnancy, the worker should have the right to have his or her old job back.
The unfortunate reality in many workplaces is that fertile or pregnant women are simply dismissed instead of being given alternative, non-hazardous work.